Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9 Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9

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Basic Info.
  • Brand Name: Crovell 
  • Product Name: Ammonium chloride 
  • CAS: 12125-02-9 
  • MF: ClH4N 
  • MW: 53.49 
  • EINECS: 235-186-4 
  • density: 1.52 
  • Model No.: 055 
  • Place of Origin: Hebei  
  • Min.Order: 1 Kilogram
Supply Capacity
  • Production Capacity: 500MT/month
  • Packing:50kg bag
  • Delivery Date: 15 days


CAS : 12125-02-9


Solid  White 

Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.

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Product Name:

Ammonium chloride


ai3-08937;Amchlor;ammonchlor;Ammoneric;Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl);Ammonium chloride fume;Ammonium   uriate;ammoniumchloratum









Product Categories:

INORGANIC & ORGANIC CHEMICALS;Inorganics;Analytical/Chromatography;Auxiliaries for ISE;Ion Sensor Materials;metal halide

Mol File:


Ammonium chloride Chemical Properties


Melting point 

340 °C (subl.)(lit.)

Boiling point 

100 °C750 mm Hg



vapor density 

1.9 (vs air)

vapor pressure 

1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)

refractive index 


storage temp. 

Store at RT.


H2O: 1 M   at 20 °C, clear, colorless






4.7 (200g/l, H2O, 25℃)(External MSDS)

Water Solubility 







Stable. Incompatible with strong   acids, strong bases.

CAS DataBase Reference

12125-02-9(CAS   DataBase Reference)

NIST Chemistry Reference

Ammonium   chloride(12125-02-9)

EPA Substance Registry System

Ammonium   chloride ((NH4)Cl)(12125-02-9)


Safety Information


Hazard Codes 


Risk Statements 


Safety Statements 



UN 3077 9 / PGIII

WGK Germany 










HS Code 


Hazardous Substances Data

12125-02-9(Hazardous   Substances Data)

MSDS Information










Ammonium chloride Usage And Synthesis



Ammonium chloride (referred to as   "chloramine", also known as halogen sand, chemical formula: NH4Cl)   is colorless cubic crystal or white crystalline powder. It tastes salty and   slightly bitter and belongs to acids salt. Its relative density is 1.527. It   is soluble in water, ethanol and liquid ammonia but insoluble in acetone and   ether. The aqueous solution is weakly acidic, and its acidity is enhanced   while heating. When heated to 100 ° C, it begins to significantly volatilize,   and when heated to 337.8  ° C, it will dissociate into ammonia and   hydrogen chloride, which, on cold exposure, will re-combine to produce small   particles of ammonium chloride and white smoke that is not easy to sink and   very difficult to be dissolved in water. When heated to 350 ° C ,it will   sublimate and when 520 ° C, it will boil. Its moisture absorption is small,   and in the wet rainy weather can absorb moisture to cake. For the ferrous   metals and other metals, it is corrosive, which, in particular, has greater   corrosion of copper but no corrosion of pig iron. Ammonium chloride can be   obtained from the neutralization reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride or   ammonia and hydrochloric acids (reaction equation: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl). When   heated, it will decompose into hydrogen chloride and ammonia reaction   (equation: NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl) and the reaction is only to the right if the   container is open system.

Nitrogen Fertilizer

Ammonium chloride is a quick-acting   nitrogen fertilizer made by the direct reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric   acids, in which the nitrogen content is 24~25%. It can dissociate into   chloride ions and ammonium ions in the soil, and the former can combine with   the hydrogen ions in the soil to form hydrochloric acids  and the later can be absorbed by crops. The   long-term use of ammonium chloride should add lime to the soil.
  The application methods of ammonium chloride as basal and top dressing is   basically the same with ammonium sulfate, while the application amount is   generally less 1/5 than ammonium sulfate. However, ammonium chloride is   generally not used for seed and seedling fertilizer, in particular, should   not be used for seed dressing or other application methods which need   directly contact with seed. We had better not use ammonium chloride as   fertilizers for tobacco, potatoes, grapes, citrus, tea trees and other   "avoid chlorine crops"; if not, we can limit its use only in the   region which is rich in rain or convenient for irrigation and where soil   moisture is suitable for crops during the growth period and chloride ions are   easy to move and loss. In addition, we should also apply basal fertilizer   early and control the application strictly. Similarly, it is generally not   appropriate to use ammonium chloride in the dry land absent of irrigation   conditions, saline and alkaline areas poor in drainage and arid areas lacking   rain.
  According to the studies of Japanese salt amine Association, the fertilizer   efficiency of ammonium chloride is better than ammonium sulfate in paddy   fields. The main reasons are:
  1. the use of ammonium chloride will not poison seedlings like ammonium   sulfate that will produce poisonous gas hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ;
  2. the existence of Cl-can not only inhibit the nitrification of NH4+, but   also stimulate the proliferation of algae in rice fields. Part of the NH4+   are absorbed by algae to temporarily transform into slow nitrogen, which will   reduce the nitrogen loss and prolong the fertilizer efficiency of Ammonium   chloride fertilizer;
  3. chloride ions can promote photosynthesis and is conducive to forming fiber   and increasing its toughness and tension. It can also control the   concentration of soluble nitrogen compounds in rice plants and promote the   formation of chlorogenic acids (C16H18O9) that is the "resistance substances"   of rice blast,  thereby reducing rice lodging and pest invasion. The use   of ammonium chloride for cotton and other fiber crops have significant   effects of increasing yield and fiber quality. The degree of acidification of   ammonium chloride to soil is greater than that of ammonium sulfate. The   reason is that ammonium chloride produce ammonium chloride after the   selective absorption of NH4+ by crops while ammonium sulfate produce calcium   sulfate. Because the solubility of the former is larger than the latter, so   the calcium ion loss of the former is more than that of the latter, resulting   that ammonium chloride is more easy for soil acidification and compaction. So   the ammonium chloride for acids soil should be equipped with lime or other   alkaline fertilizer, but should not be used for mixed application.

Water   Solubility

0°C:29.4g 10°C:33.3g 20°C:37.2g   30°C:41.4g 40°C:45.8g 50°C:50.4g 60°C:55.2g 70°C:60.2g  80°C:65.6g    90°C:71.3g  100°C:77.3g

Decomposition temperature

The Decomposition temperature of   ammonium chloride is 337.8 °C. In this temperature, it dissociates into   ammonia and hydrogen chloride and then , on cold exposure, re-synthesize   small particles of ammonium chloride and white fog that is not easy to sink   and very difficult to dissolve in water. The visible gas will change back to   ammonium chloride.


Ammonium chloride is mainly used for   dry batteries, storage batteries, ammonium salts, tanning, plating, medicine,   photography, electrodes, adhesives, etc. Ammonium chloride is also an   available nitrogen chemical fertilizer whose nitrogen content is 24% to 25%.   It is a physiological acidic fertilizer and suitable for wheat, rice, corn,   rapeseed and other crops. It have the effects of enhancing fiber toughness   and tension and improving quality especially for cotton and linen crops.   However, due to the nature of ammonium chloride, if the application is not   right, it will bring some adverse effects to soil and crops. 
  Technical conditions: the implementation of the People's Republic of China   national standard GB-2946-82.
  1. Appearance: white crystal
  2. ammonium chloride content (dry basis) ≥ 99.3%
  3. moisture content ≤1.0%
  4. sodium chloride content (dry basis) ≤0.2%
  5. iron content ≤0.001%
  6. heavy metal content (in terms of Pb) ≤0.0005%
  7. water insoluble content ≤0.02%
  8. sulfate content (in terms of SO42-) ≤0.02%
  9. pH: 4.2-5.8


Action category This product is a   expectorant drug which belongs to non-prescription drug.
  Pharmacological effects
  1. when ammonium chloride comes into body, part of ammonium ions rapidly   metabolize to form urea, which is excreted by the urine. Chlorine ions and   hydrogen ions combine into hydrochloric acids, thereby correcting alkali   poisoning.
  2. ammonium chloride has a stimulating effect on the respiratory mucosa, and   can reflexively increase the mucus secretion of respiratory tract to   discharge sputum and clear the sticky sputum coating. After this product is   absorbed, chloride ions come into the blood and extracellular fluid to   acidify the urine.
  1. severe metabolic alkalosis that can not be satisfactorily corrected after   the application of adequate sodium chloride injection.
  2. ammonium chloride loading test can measure the acidification function of   renal tubular and be used for the differential diagnosis of renal tubular   acidosis.
  3. eliminating phlegm, suitable for dry cough and condition where sputum is   not easy to cough and so on. 
  Usage and dosage
  1. Common dose of adult (taking orally): expectorant, 0.3-0.6g each time, 3   times a day; diuretic, 0.6~2g each time, 3 times a day.
  2. Common daily dose of children by weight: 40-60mg/kg or by body surface   area:1.5g/m2, 4 times one day.
  3. Severe metabolic alkalosis (taking orally): 1~2g each time, 3 times a day.   If necessary, intravenous infusion of 2% ammonium chloride according to the   weight of 1ml/kg is needed, which can reduce CO2CPO. The amount of ammonium   chloride should be calculated by 45mmol/L and then be diluted to 0.9%   (isotonic) concentration with 5% glucose injection that used for intravenous   infusion for 2 to 3 times.
  1. Disabled for ulcer disease and severe liver and kidney dysfunction.
  2. Disabled for people allergy to this product.
  3. Disabled when the drug traits change.
  4. When taking excessive dose or having serious adverse reactions, should   seek medical attention immediately.
  5. Children must be supervised by adults while applying this medicine.
  6. Keep this medicine out of the reach of children.
  Adverse reactions
   This medicine can cause nausea, stomach pain and other symptoms.

Methods of production

The main method to produce ammonium   chloride is combined-soda process, in which the main raw materials used are   carbon, ammonia, water and salt. The production is divided into two   processes.
  The first process is the production of soda ash:
  The second process is the production of ammonium chloride:
  This process is performed in two steps. First, the mother liquor are sent   into the first cold-crystallizer for cold crystallization to precipitate part   of ammonium chloride; Second, the process is salting-out crystallization.   Namely, according to the characteristic that the solubility of ammonium   chloride is higher than that of sodium chloride at normal temperature while   lower at low temperature, salt powder is added into the salt-crystallizer to   make the remaining ammonium chloride crystallize alone due to the same ion   effect. Finally, the ammonium chloride acquired from the former two steps is   merged, centrifuged and dried at 65~68 ° C to obtain ammonium chloride   products.

Other application and function

Ammonium chloride can be used as the   electrolyte of carbon-zinc dry batteries and be largely used for the   electroplating industry, especially in cyanide-free plating. For example,   ZnCl2 and NH4Cl are the main components of the plating solution of   cyanide-free zinc plating and ZnCl2 can form complex ions ZnCl42-(or ZnCl3-)   with Cl-which have similar properties with [Zn(CN)4]2-and can continue to   dissociate a small amount of Zn2+ to deposit on the cathode plating and make   the coating uniformity.
  It can also be used as the important raw material to synthesize inorganic   polymer compounds. For example, the highly polymeric chain-like nitrides   (SN)x as superconducting materials are prepared by the reaction of S2Cl2 and   NH4Cl. High polychlorophosphonazo benzene compounds are synthesized with   NH4Cl and PCl5. Chlorine boron nitrogen benzene compounds are formed by the   reaction of NH4Cl and BCl3. They are all called "inorganic benzene"   compounds, which are very useful non-metallic inorganic materials.
  In addition, ammonium chloride can also be used as dyeing mordant, analysis   reagents, gunpowder materials and flux. Ammonium chloride and metal oxides   can react to generate chloride to remove the oxide on the metal surface while   welding. The ammonium chloride whose content is more than 99.5% can be used   as diuretics.

Mixture preparation

A mount of ammonium chloride is   dissolved in 500ml of distilled water and then filtrated. The pH value of   filtrate is adjust to 8~9 with dilute ammonia solution. Add glycerol and   extractum glycyrrhizae liquidum to mix well, followed by adding antimony   potassium tartrate aqueous solution ( adding potassium antimonate tartrate   into 20ml distilled water and heated for dissolvant) and compound camphor   tincture while stirring. Finally, add distilled water to mix to 1000ml and   stir well. This product can be used for eliminating phlegm and relieving   cough.

content analysis

Accurately weigh 200 mg sample   pretreated by drying in a silica gel for 4 hours, and dissolve in 40 ml of   water in a stoppered flask. While stirring, 3 ml of nitric acids, 5 ml of   nitrobenzene and 50.0 ml of 0.1 mol/L silver nitrate are added, Shake, add   2ml of iron ammonium sulfate solution (TS-99) and then titrate excess silver   nitrate with 0.1mol/L ammonium thiocyanate solution. Per ml of 0.1 mol/L   silver nitrate solution is equivalent to 5.349mg of ammonium chloride   (NH4Cl).


ADI is not subject to restrictive   regulations (FAO/WHO, 2001).
  GRAS (FDA, § 184.1138, 2000).
  LD 501650 mg/kg (rat, oral).
  ADI is not limited (FAO/WHO, 1979). It is generally recognized as safe (US   Food and Drug Administration, 1985). Generally mixed with sodium bicarbonate   to use and the amount is about 25% of sodium bicarbonate or 10~20 g/kg of   wheat flour. It is  mainly used for bread, biscuits and so on.
  It has big corrosiveness and should be used carefully for not contacting with   the skin. The permissible concentration of ammonium chloride fume in the air   is 10mg/m3. Operators should wear overalls, masks, latex gloves and other   labor insurance products. Production equipment should be closed and the   workshop ventilation should be good.

Chemical properties

Colorless cubic crystals or white   crystals. Taste salty and slightly bitter. Soluble in water, liquid ammonia,   slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in acetone and ether.


(1) Mainly used in the manufacture of   dry batteries and batteries, other ammonium salts, electroplating additives,   metal welding flux, and also used in tanning, candles, adhesives, etc.
  (2) Used for medicine, dry batteries, fabric printing,dyeing, fertilizer, tanning, electroplating, detergent   and so on.
  (3) Mainly used in the manufacture of dry batteries and storage batteries. It   is the raw materials for the manufacture of other ammonium salts. Used as a   dyeing aid, plating bath additives and metal welding flux. Also used for tin   and zinc plating, tanning, medicine, candles, adhesives, chromizing and   precision casting.
  (4) Used as fertilizer for crops and it is suitable for rice, wheat, cotton,   vegetables and other crops.
  (5) Used for the analysis of reagents and the test of synthetic fiber   viscosity 
  (6) Used as yeast nutrients (mainly used for brewing beer) and dough   conditioner. Generally mixed with sodium bicarbonate and the amount is about   25% of sodium bicarbonate or measured by 10~20g/kg wheat flour. Mainly used   for bread, biscuits and so on. Processing aids (GB 2760-96).
  (7) Use as yeast nutrients and dough conditioner in the food industry.
  (8) Medicinal ammonium chloride is used for expectorants and diuretics.
  Used as expectorants. Also used as adhesives, detergents, dyeing auxiliaries,   and   used in electroplating, welding, tanning, medicine,   photography and other industries.
  (9) Used for separation and precipitation of ions. Also used to prepare the   buffer and determine uric acids. Also used as refrigerants and   pharmaceuticals.
  (10) Used for separation and precipitation of ions. Also used to prepare the   buffer and determine uric acids. Also used as refrigerants and   pharmaceuticals.
  The product of pharmaceutical grade can be used for expectorants and   auxiliary diuretics. Used for eliminating phlegm, diuresis, alkalosis and the   acidification of urine. Used for the production of batteries and fluorescent   powder.

Production   method

(1) Recrystallization method: the   industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been   filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents   is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered,   cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the chemical   ammonium chloride is finished.
  (2) Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to   reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and   proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium   chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystallization. The obtained mixture is   then filtrated and separated to remove sulfuric acids Sodium. Add arsenic   removal and heavy metal removal to the filtrate and filtrate to remove   arsenic, heavy metals and other impurities. The filtrate is sent to a cooling   crystallizer and is cooled to 32-35 ℃ to   precipitate the crystals. The crystals are filtered and washed with ammonium   chloride solution, and then are dehydrated by centrifugal separation and   dried to obtain finished edible ammonium chloride.  Reaction formula:
  (NH4) 2SO4 + 2NaCl→2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
  Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the   dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by   heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal   removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and   dried. Finally the edible ammonium chloride is finished.
  (3) The mother liquor was filtrated by associated alkali method and cooled   for crystallization, and then add salt powder to salt out the product.
  It can also be obtained by derived replacement reaction of ammonium sulfate   and calcium chloride in aqueous solution.
  (4) Gas-liquid phase synthesis: hydrogen chloride gas is added from the   bottom of the turbulence absorption tower and then contact with the   circulating mother liquor flowing from overhead spray to generate chloride   mother liquor containing saturated ammonium chloride. Chloride mother liquor   then flows into the reactor and react with   ammonia gas to form a   saturated ammonium chloride solution. The obtained solvents are sent to the   cooling crystallizer and cooled to 30~45 ° C to precipitate supersaturated   ammonium chloride crystals. The ammonium chloride solution in the upper part   of the crystallizer is sent to the air cooler for cooling and circulating to   the crystallizer; the crystal slurry in the lower part of the crystallizer is   thickened by thickening thickener and centrifuged for separation to obtain   ammonium chloride. Reaction formula:
  HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl
  The mother liquor separated by centrifugation is sent to the turbulent   absorption tower for recycling.
  Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor   and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and   proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium   chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystals. The obtained mixture is then filtrated   to remove sulfuric acids Sodium and the filtrate is sent to cooling   crystallizer and cooled to 32 to 35 ℃ for   crystallization. Then the crystals of ammonium chloride is obtained by   filtration and  respectively washed by 4 different concentrations (15~17°Bé,11~12°Bé,10°Bé,9.5~10°Bé) of   ammonium chloride solution, controlling Fe < 0.008%, SO42-< 0.001%.   After elution to qualified, use ammonium chloride solution to remake the   crystals into slurry, put into the centrifuge for separation and dehydration.   And then dry by hot air and obtain the industrial ammonium chloride products.   Reaction formula:
  2NaCl + (NH4) 2SO4 → 2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
  The mother liquor is sent to the metathesis reactor for recycling. The   separated sodium sulfate is filtered to produce sodium sulfate. The crude   ammonium chloride is added into the dissolving device, dissolved in the steam   and filtered. The filtrate is cooled for crystallization, centrifugalized and   dried to obtain the finished products of industrial ammonium chloride. The mother   liquor from the centrifugal separation is returned to the dissolver for use.

Chemical Properties

white crystalline powder




As a flux in zinc and tin plating;   electroplating, electrolytic refining of zinc; etching solutions in   manufacture of printed circuit boards; in dry and Leclanché batteries; as a   nitrogen source for fertilization of rice and wheat, manufacturing of explosives;   flame suppressant; hardener for formaldehyde-based adhesives; mordant for   dyes and printing.


ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having   ammonium as the counterion.

Hazards & Safety Information

  Toxic substances
  Toxic classification 
  Moderate toxicity
  Acute toxicity 
  Oral-Rat LD50: 1650 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50: 1300 mg/kg
  Stimulation Data 
  Eye-Rabbit 500 mg/24h  Severe
  Explosives hazardous characteristics 
  React with potassium chlorate or BRF3 to explore; react with hydrogen cyanide   to explore
  Flammability hazardous properties 
  The products are not flammable by themselves and produce toxic nitrogen   oxides, chlorides and ammonia fumes at high temperatures
  Storage and transportation characteristics 
  Ventilation, low temperature and dry
  Fire extinguishing agent 
  dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, mist water
  Occupational Standard 
  TWA 10mg/m3; STEL 20 mg/m3

General Description

Ammonium chloride is a white   crystalline solid. Ammonium chloride is soluble in water(37%). The primary   hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be   taken to limit its spread to the environment. Ammonium chloride is used to make   other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many   other uses.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water. Slowly releases   hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].

Reactivity Profile

Acidic salts, such as Ammonium   chloride , are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain   moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They   react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but   less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids,   inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acids , They usually do not react as   either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not   impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of fumes irritates   respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are   irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.

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Crovell Biotech (Hebei) Co., Ltd.
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